Scientific Study Concluded: “Crop Circles Are Made by Balls of Light”

DR. ELTJO HASELHOFF is one of the few people on planet Earth to have had a paper published on crop circles in a peer-reviewed scientific journal (‘Physiologa Plantarum’). His paper asserts that the long-recognized connection of crop circles to balls of light may be even stronger than many think. Here, in layman’s terms, Dr. Haselhoff outlines the important findings of his paper.

Over the years, numerous people have claimed that they have seen how a crop circle was created by one or more “balls of light”. 

Recent scientific studies have confirmed these statements: Circumstantial evidence has shown that crop circles may very well be made by ‘balls of light’ indeed! This article explains the essential elements of these studies in simple terms. 


The stems of corn-type plants are characterised by little ‘knuckles’, at several positions along the stems (see Figure 1). These nodes act as a kind of ligament. They allow the plants to bend towards the light, even after they have grown to their full length. 

In the early 1990s, the American biophysicist William Levengood discovered that plants inside crop circles often had much longer nodes than those in the undisturbed, surrounding crop. This effect is illustrated in Figure 2. 

Although there are known biological effects that can create node lengthening, these could be easily ruled out. It was clear that something else had happened. The effect could be simulated by placing normal, healthy stems inside a microwave oven.

The heat induced by the microwaves made the liquids inside the nodes expand, just like the mercury inside a thermometer. This caused the nodes to increase in length, while the amount of lengthening increased proportionally to the amount of microwave energy that was generated. 

This finding led to the conclusion that the node lengthening effect may be caused by the involvement of heat, possibly caused by microwave radiation. In fact, traces of heat have been found innumerable times in crop circles all over the world, such as dehydrated plants, burn marks, and molten snow.


The number of ‘balls of light’ that have been seen by eyewitnesses has increased considerably over the last couple of years. Sized somewhere between an egg and a football, these bright, fluorescent, flying light objects seem to be somehow related to the crop circle phenomenon. They often appear in the fields during the night a crop circle forms, and have been seen (and filmed!) many times in and around crop circles. Several persons have even claimed that they witnessed how these balls of light actually created a crop circle.


In the year 1999, William Levengood and Nancy Talbott published a scientific paper [1] that contained a study to the node lengthening effect in three different crop circles, two in England and one in the USA. The authors presented a ‘quantitative analysis’; in other words, the article tried to explain the AMOUNT of node lengthening throughout the crop circle, by means of physical models. The authors concluded that the heat (that had made the nodes swell) was electromagnetic in origin.

One year later, I contributed a paper reacting to the one by Levengood and Talbott. This article appeared early 2001 [2]. The paper reinterpreted the data published by Levengood and Talbott and showed that the node lengthening as measured in all three crop circles could be perfectly explained by assuming that a ‘ball of light’ had caused the node swelling effect. An identical analysis performed on a famous man-made formation (Dreischor, Holland, 1997) did not show these characteristics at all. 

My statements can be interpreted as follows: Imagine a dark room with one single light bulb hanging on the ceiling. If you switch on the light, you will notice that right below the light bulb the light intensity on the floor will be brightest. Towards the edges of the room, the floor will gradually become darker. This light distribution on the floor is well understood, and can be described with high accuracy. 

The exact light distribution on the floor depends on the HEIGHT of the light bulb. When the light bulb is hanging very low, almost touching the floor, the floor underneath the light bulb will be very bright, but the intensity will rapidly become less as you move away from it (see Figure 3, left).

When the light is hanging high on the ceiling, however, the light intensity underneath the light will be much less and be more evenly distributed over the floor (see Figure 3, right). Because this mechanism is so well known, one can actually derive the height of the light bulb after measuring the light distribution on the floor.

This is what I suggested. As explained above, the swollen nodes inside the crop circles may be thought of as many little thermometers, expanding their length with increasing heat. If one assumes that the heat was induced by a small spherical shape emitting electromagnetic radiation, the theoretical heat distribution on the floor can be accurately determined (similarly to the case of the light bulb, as discussed above).

I demonstrated that the measured node lengths in all of the three crop circles studies by Levengood and Talbott perfectly matched the temperature distribution that would be caused by a small ball of light, hanging in the air above the centre of the circles, emitting intense heat. 

An identical analysis was repeated on a formation in Holland [3]. An eye witness claimed that this crop circle was created in a matter of seconds, while a “ball of light” was floating in the air, right above the centre of the circle [4]. Figure 4 shows the results. 

The yellow bars indicate the average node length measured at seven different locations across the crop circle, from one edge (position b1), through the centre (a4), to the opposite edge (b7). Note the perfect symmetry, which is remarkable! Similar graphs were obtained from two different cross sections through the circle, revealing a perfect circular symmetry: long nodes towards the centre of the circle, shorter nodes towards the edges. 

The thick, continuous, blueish line represents the theoretical value of the node length across the circle, if it were caused by a ball of light at a height of 4 meters and 10 centimetres. (This height corresponded to the estimate of the eyewitness). Just like the three crop circles analysed by Levengood and Talbott, the theoretical values for the node length (blue line) correspond perfectly to the measurements (yellow bars). 

Consequently, the circumstantial evidence left in the fields was in perfect agreement with the words of the eyewitness: the crop circle was indeed created with the involvement of a “ball of light”. 


My paper shows that the node lengthening in several crop circles corresponds perfectly to the effect that would be created by a ball of light, heating up the crop during the creation of the crop circle. This is not the case for a man-made formation.

The amount of node lengthening, and in particular its symmetry over the crop circles, lack any trivial explanation. Consequently, the study confirms the words of eyewitnesses, stating that they saw how crop circles were created by “balls of light.” 

My paper does not attempt to explain where the balls of light come from, nor does it explain how the crop is flattened. It does, however, give a strong argument to take the “ball of light” phenomenon, as well as the words of eyewitnesses, very seriously, and I hope will stimulate further study. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that all these findings and conclusions have been published in ‘peer-reviewed’ scientific journals. In order to guarantee a high level of reliability, such journals employ so-called ‘referees’ (objective, anonymous experts), who accurately check each contributed paper for errors and inconsistencies before it is published.

Consequently, conclusions published in peer-reviewed scientific journals can not be simply dismissed as wild fantasy or pseudo-science. Therefore, it is fair to say that recent scientific findings have established considerable progress in understanding the crop circle phenomenon, although many questions still remain unanswered.


[1] W C Levengood, N P Talbott, ‘Dispersion of energies in worldwide crop formations’, Physiol. Plant. 105: 615-624 (1999).

[2] E H Haselhoff, ‘Comment to Physiol. Plant. 105: 615-624″, Physiol. Plant. 111: 123-125 (2001).

[3] E H Haselhoff, http://www.dcccs.org/id48.htm (not available anymore)

[4] See, for example, N P Talbott, http://www.crystalinks.com/crop1999.2.html or http://www.labyrinthina.com/crop.htm (not available anymore). 


Interview with Crop Circle Expert, Dr Eltjo Haselhoff

The tracks and the lights; the scientific evidence

The Book of Eltjo Haselhoff: “The Deeping Complexity of Crop Circles”, is the first popular science book about the phenomenon of grain circles, describing instances of geometric patterns around the world, farm fields and other areas of the field .

The reason for this book is entirely focused on the obvious and reproducible features, accessible from a rational point of view and based solely on scientific evidence. is because it was written by a scientist trained at Los Alamos (USA), who tries to sweep away all the ideas of the circles of grain, and the controversies that have been created on this phenomenon, informing the reader about the importance of these facts  which are misinterpreted (despite the assertions of opponents and skeptics).

Obviously there are many dozens of photographs and videos taken by individuals. These observers claim that cereal circles were created by the “balls of light” in a few seconds:

These statements lead to many controversies. Few people know, however, that these “balls of light” leave real physical trace, such as: Dehydration in the stems of plants or burning circular marks on metal or wood.

In scientific publishing, specializing in botany, Phisilogía Plantarum, described in a rigorous and honest, the analysis made in the stems of various circles of cereals, confirming the hypothesis of creation by “balls of light.”

Q – What is your opinion about the circles of the cereal?

H – Good question, I do not know. Possibly simple circles, are a natural phenomenon. Obviously, some of them are made by man, with a simple mechanical crushing. But many others were not made well. I know this is so.

Q – How are you sure those were not made by a “mechanical crushing?

H – Try crushing a field of carrots without leaving marks or without damaging the plants. Try making a circle in a snowy field without leaving traces. In addition, important biophysical alterations were found in plants. That is not produced by a mechanical crushing plant.

P – Colin Andrews, another prominent researcher said that 80% of the CC are made by man. 
H – It is 80% of the formations in the south of England, not in the world. It’s a big difference.Colin reached its conclusion to the magnetic anomalies based on only 20% of the formations investigated but not the rest. But these anomalies do not always occur, or they disappear quickly in some cases. Dr. Levegood, for example, biophysical anomalies found about 90% of the cases investigated. This is not to be speculating about the accuracy of these numbers. 

Q – Are cereal circles made by aliens (aliens)?

H-I know of no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. But I’ve talked to many people who claim to have seen a flying saucers creating cereal circles, and there are some who claim to be communicated with the creators of the circles; That, they say, are aliens or supernatural beings.

– The true nature of the phenomenon known among researchers “crop circles” (circles cereals) is still unknown. 
– The phenomenon is wrongly ridiculed, underestimating its complexity. 
– The idea that all crop circles were made by pranksters, is not sufficient to explain all the observations documented. 
– “Balls of light” (electromagnetic) are involved in the process. 


Arguments Against the Hoax Theory  
of Crop Circles
by Joseph E. Mason


Most serious crop circle researchers agree that a majority of the formations are not being made by the human specie, and seem to be symbolic messages from an unknown, high intelligence. The researchers include people with advanced degrees in science and engineering.

The reason is that the evidence supports the theory that human beings could not have made many of the many thousands of crop circles world wide. Of course, people can make circles that look “genuine” at first sight. That was demonstrated on television in 1990. The evidence includes a number of factors.

Unexplainable Changes to the Plants

The plants inside crop circles are changed in a way that is beyond human ability.

Figure 1 above is a photograph showing a normal plant stem and a stem found bent in a crop formation. The bent node of the plant from inside a crop formation is elongated yet undamaged. Plant stems bent by people via mechanical means appear damaged and do not have the elongated nodes.

Figures 2 and 3 above are photographs demonstrating the microscopic changes in a plant inside a crop circle compared to a control sample taken from the same field.

Plants inside crop formations often have “blown nodes.”  Figure 4 above is a photograph of the normal nodes of plants taken from outside of a crop formation. Figure 5 above is a photograph of the blown nodes of plants found inside the crop formation.  Figure 6 is another example of the blown nodes of plants taken from inside a crop formation.

Other changes to the plants have been reported by Dr. W.C. Levengood and his BLT team, including stunted seed-heads, cell-wall pit enlargement, and expulsion cavities. 


The Deepening Complexity of Crop Circles
Scientific Research & Urban Legends
Dr. Eltjo H. Haselhoff, Ph.D.

The Deepening Complexity of Crop Circles is the first popular-scientific book about the world-wide appearance of large, geometrical patterns in farm fields and other land areas, usually referred to as ‘crop circles’.

Crop circles are usually explained as the handiwork of creative pranksters. `Not true,’ says Dr. Eltjo H. Haselhoff, Ph.D., former employee of Los Alamos National Laboratories. `The complexity of the crop circle phenomenon is tremendously underestimated, because its true nature is unknown to the general public.’

`Obviously, there are people trying to imitate the real thing, but the suggestion that all of these crop formations are made by men with simple flattening tools is by far insufficient to explain the well-documented observations, like unambiguous and consistent biophysical anomalies in the flattened plants, inside the circles, all of which have been published in peer-reviewed scientific literature,’ according to Dr. Haselhoff.

About ten thousand crop formations have been reported world wide since the late seventies, of which several hundreds throughout the USA, where the first one was reported in 1964. Along with the increasing number of crop circle events, there is also a growing number of eyewitnesses, who claim to have seen how crop circles appeared before their eyes in just a few seconds. Several of these people say that bright, fluorescent balls of light hovered above the fields at the time the circles were formed.

`Such a story sounds unbelievable, of course,’ Dr. Haselhoff admits, `but after some straightforward research, it was discovered that the plant stems inside these formations had increased in diameter, as an effect of intensive heating, with an astonishing circular symmetry.’ `Moreover,’ says Dr. Haselhoff, `this effect perfectly matched the radiation pattern of an electromagnetic point source at a height of four meters and ten centimeters above that field.

Unbelievable as it may seem to the layman, this is solid physical evidence that these eyewitnesses speak the truth!’ Dr. Haselhoff employed his analysis to other crop circles, investigated by others, and obtained identical results. However, the analysis failed dramatically on several man-made crop circles. He concluded that ‘balls of light’ must indeed be involved in the creation of crop circles, and submitted his findings to the international and peer-reviewed scientific journal Physiologia Plantarum, in which the article was recently published (Phys.Plant. 111 (1), pp. 124).

`This has important consequences,’ says Dr. Haselhoff. `The hypothesis that these balls of light are involved in the creation of crop circles is now no longer just a hypothesis, but a scientifically accepted fact, until someone proofs the opposite. Moreover, it promotes all further discussions about this to a scientific level.’ Dr. Haselhoff’s findings are in perfect agreement with the opinion of the American researchers Burke, Levengood and Talbott, who suggested earlier in two other scientific articles that the plant alterations in crop circles may be described to electromagnetic effects.

`Not one of these clearly anomalous plant alterations had been mentioned – much less explained – by the proponents of the vandal theory, nor can they be accounted for by the supposed methods employed to create crop formations through claims made by the self-described vandals,’ according to the American researchers. ‘The BLT team has been attacked by skeptics several times, but without good reason. Their conclusions are correct,’ according to Dr. Haselhoff.

`I am not performing rocket-science or esoteric experiments, but trivial experimental physics,’ says Dr. Haselhoff, `and the results are crystal-clear: something very strange is going on. No-one can deny this. Anyone who claims the opposite, clearly does not know what he is talking about, whereas I consider it the duty of every scientist to figure out what on earth is going on.’

Video recorded evidence – light orbs forming ‘crop circles’:

Update: 2016 footage of UFOs creating crop circle:

By David Castelluccio, PhD, GreatDreams.com / Published by Alexander Light, HumansAreFree.com